Exit, Voice and Disloyalty


Heather Gerken


What does a democracy owe its minorities? And most of the answers to this question fit naturally into the two categories Hirschman made famous: voice and exit. On both the rights side and the structural side of constitutional theory, scholars worry about providing minorities with an adequate level of influence. And the solutions they propose almost inevitably offer minorities a chance at voice or exit, as if no other option exists...Exit and voice are not, however, the only options available to a minority group seeking influence.

Streaming Media


Heather K. Gerken, Exit, Voice, and Disloyalty , 62 Duke Law Journal 1349-1386 (2013) Available at: http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/dlj/vol62/iss7/2

Lecture Date

March 27, 2012