Jason Wasserman

Document Type


Publication Date



data breaches, standing, Article III, justiciability

Subject Category

Constitutional Law


Every day, another hacker gains unauthorized access to information, be it credit card data from grocery stores or fingerprint records from federal databases. Bad actors who orchestrate these data breaches, if they can be found, face clear criminal liability. Still, a hacker’s conviction may not be satisfying to victims whose data was accessed, and so victims may seek proper redress through lawsuits against compromised organizations. In those lawsuits, plaintiff-victims allege promising theories, including that the compromised organization negligently caused the data breach or broke an implied contract to protect customers’ personal information.

However, many federal courts see a data breach as essentially harmless, or that data breach plaintiff-victims do not necessarily suffer cognizable legal injuries. In practice, this means that the plaintiffs do not have Article III standing, and courts do not reach merits determinations of fault. Instead, a data breach to these courts is only harmful to the extent that it leads to a subsequent injury, like identity theft or fraud. Therefore, data breach victims must suffer even more harm before they can bring a lawsuit. Other courts under this framework do nonetheless find that data breach plaintiff-victims have standing. However, even those courts still wrongfully check whether the plaintiffs suffered future identity theft, fraud, or other harm. Those courts simply find that such subsequent harm is readily apparent.

This Note offers a proper approach to standing in data breach lawsuits. I argue that the moment a victims’ data is exposed without their authorization, they suffer a cognizable common law injury, regardless of whether that data exposure actually causes subsequent harm. Rather

than thinking of data breaches as a means to future data misuse, courts should think of data breaches as injurious in and of themselves.