Rai points out the great limitations of some conventional measures of efficiency and cites quality-adjusted life years (QALY), an alternative measure that is actually used in making health-care decisions, as an example. the ability to pay. Quantifying benefits in terms of QALY does not give us a neutral measure of worth, of course but it does expose the value judgments being made and give us a yardstick other than intuition or anecdote for measuring effects. Thus, she argues that rather than giving up on economic analysis, other ways to broaden its scope should be sought.

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