This article presents empirical evidence of the ways people compare judgments of liability with judgments of causation and contribution. Specifically, the article reports the results of experiments designed to show whether people regard causation and enablement as necessary elements of liability.
Lawrence M. Solan & John M. Darley,
Causation, Contribution, and Legal Liability: An Empirical Study,
64 Law and Contemporary Problems
Available at: https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/lcp/vol64/iss4/11