The Parker doctrine requires that state regulatory arrangements seeking exemption from federal antitrust law be clearly articulated by the state "as sovereign." Professor Page argues that the clear-articulation requirement is justified because it reinforces representative political processes. He rejects Professor Wiley's capture preemption approach and the Supreme Court's analysis in Fisher v. City of Berkeley, arguing that both misconceive the nature of governmental relationships with interest groups. Professor Page concludes that the essentially collective nature of economic regulation supports adherence to the clear-articulation requirement as the measure of political legitimacy.
William H. Page,
Interest Groups, Antitrust, and State Regulation: Parker v. Brown in the Economic Theory of Legislation,
1987 Duke Law Journal
Available at: https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/dlj/vol36/iss4/2