Under new pressures for cost containment, hospitals are increasingly asserting interests that conflict with those of physicians. Professor Havighurst argues that legal rules under which practitioners have challenged denials of hospital admitting privileges should be clarified in order that hospitals can more effectively carry out their new cost-containment and other responsibilities. He invokes antitrust law's "essential-facilities" doctrine to protect those abused by their competitors on a hospital staff, but he contends that, if a hospital participates in decisionmaking as an independent actor--even though it acts in concert with its physicians--, antitrust courts should lower the level of scrutiny to a point at which most challenges can be dismissed summarily. He analogizes restraints imposed by hospitals on competition between health professionals to vertical restraints of other kinds, and draws conclusions critical of doctrine traditionally applicable to the latter.

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