Minorities are gravely overrepresented in every stage of the criminal process--from pedestrian and automobile stops, to searches and seizures, to arrests and convictions, to incarceration and capital punishment. While racial data can provide a snapshot of the current state of affairs, such information rarely satisfies questions of causation, and usually only sets the scene for normative theory.
Race, Crime, and Institutional Design,
66 Law and Contemporary Problems
Available at: https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/lcp/vol66/iss3/7