Cody Duncan


Compulsory licensing in music has paved the way for a limited class of new noninteractive services. However, innovation and competition are stifled in the field of interactive or otherwise novel services due to high transaction costs inherent in direct licensing. While the creation of a new compulsory license available to a wider array of services may facilitate growth and diversity in new markets, it is unlikely that the legislative process can deliver a new compulsory regime in time to serve relevant interests. Furthermore, the risk exists that legislation written in response to contemporary technology will likely fail to recognize the diversity within the music industry, and therefore will underserve both artists and potential licensees. As such, this brief argues for the creation and adoption of a new standardized protocol for artists and labels to announce the availability of new content with attached standardized licensing terms for automated integration into the catalogs of new or existing digital music services. Such a protocol would allow for automated systems of pricing, distribution, and tracking to reduce transaction costs, increase market transparency, and commodify user participation.